Review Article
Volume 10 Issue 10 - 2021
Skin Ageing-Childhood to Adult
Sanskrati Sharma and Rajesh Sharma*
Department of Pediatrics, Corniche Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
*Corresponding Author: Rajesh Sharma, Department of Pediatrics, Corniche Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Received: September 17, 2021; Published: September 29, 2021




Abstract

Skin ageing is becoming a growing concern to a wider population as the people in developed countries live longer than ever before. This report aims to review the symptoms of skin ageing, how these changes come about and how the skin heals.

Studies have shown that as age increases, the skin gets drier, more wrinkled, less supple and takes longer to heal from injury. The main reason these changes occur in the skin is the change in hormone levels. There is a big drop in the sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone in both men and women. However, it is estrogen that has the biggest positive effect on the appearance of the skin.

Estrogen therapy increases the thickness of the skin layers, especially the epidermis and dermis, and increases its elasticity by increasing the number of elastic fibres in the skin. The number of collagen fibres and the water content of the skin also increases due to estrogen. The healing time of wounds is increased when estrogen is administered.

Estrogen has many positive effects on the skin and hormone therapy helps the skin to retain its normal functioning into greater ages.

As the life expectancy rises around the world and an increasing proportion of women’s lives are spent post-menopause, skin ageing has become a growing concern. This report will be looking at how hormones, particularly estrogen, affect healthy skin ageing. It is important to distinguish intrinsic ageing from extrinsic, which is due to the environment and UV exposure so is often considered ‘unhealthy’. Intrinsic ageing is part of an unavoidable chronological process.

Cutaneous aging is the lower keratinocyte turnover rate decreasing skin thickness. Estrogen combats this by stimulating secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 by fibroblasts leading to synthesis of collagen. Transforming growth factor beta 1 also speeds up the process of wound healing due to lowered elastase levels allowing collagen deposition.

Matrix metalloproteinases and oxidative stress breaks down elastic fibre as you age. Estrogen therapy increases elasticity of the skin by increasing tropoelastin and fibrillin mRNA. It increases the water content of skin by producing more hyaluronic acid. It also prevents the decrease in glandular secretions lowering sebum levels.

The effects of estrogen on wrinkles is quite controversial but most studies agree that hormone therapy has many positive effects on not only the skin but also other systems in the body.

Keywords: Skin Ageing; Childhood; Adult

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Citation: Sanskrati Sharma and Rajesh Sharma. “Skin Ageing-Childhood to Adult”. EC Paediatrics 10.10 (2021): 101-111.

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