Research Article
Volume 10 Issue 12 - 2021
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)-AA Levels in Mothers of Autistic Children

AJ Russo1*, Albert Mensah2 and Judith Bowman2

1Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology, Drew University, Madison, NJ and Research Director, Mensah Research Institute, Warrenville, Il, USA
2Mensah Research Institute, Warrenville, Il, USA
*Corresponding Author: AJ Russo, Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology, Drew University, Madison, NJ and Research Director, Mensah Research Institute, Warrenville, Il, USA.
Received: September 08, 2021; Published: November 30, 2021


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) constitute a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders with childhood onset defined clinically by difficulties in socialization, restricted or repetitive behaviors and language delays. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and receptors are essential proteins that are expressed by both embryonic and mature nervous systems. In this study, we used immune-array technology to measure PDGF-AA levels in mothers of autistic children and neurotypical controls and found that PDGF-AA levels were significantly lower in the maternal group. These low levels may influence PDGF levels and symptom severity in individuals with autism.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF); PDGF-AA


  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association (2013).
  2. Funa K and Sasahara M. “The Roles of PDGF in Development and During Neurogenesis in the Normal and Diseased Nervous System”. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 9 (2014): 168-181.
  3. Courchesne E., et al. “Unusual brain growth patterns in early life in patients with autistic disorder: an MRI study”. Neurology 2 (2001): 245-254.
  4. Hazlett HC., et al. “Magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference study of brain size in autism: birth through age 2 years”. Archives of General Psychiatry 12 (2005): 1366-1376.
  5. Dementieva YA., et al. “Accelerated head growth in early development of individuals with autism”. Pediatric Neurology2 (2005): 102-108.
  6. Dissanayake C., et al. “Growth in stature and head circumference in high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder during the first 3 years of life”. Development and Psychopathology 2 (2006): 381-393.
  7. Bailey A., et al. “A clinicopathological study of autism”. Brain5 (1998): 889-905.
  8. Kemper TL and Bauman M. “Neuropathology of infantile autism”. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 7 (1998): 645-652.
  9. Kemper TL and Bauman M. “Neuropathology of infantile autism”. Molecular Psychiatry 2 (2002): S12-S13.
  10. Masi A., et al. “Cytokine levels and associations with symptom severity in male and female children with autism spectrum disorder”. Molecular Autism 8 (2017): 63.
  11. Ruggiero M and Pacini S. “From neurology to oncology: what have in common autism and cancer? the role of oncogenes, immune system and microbiota”. Journal of Neurology and Stroke 3 (2018): 166-172.
  12. Kajizuka M., et al. “Serum levels of platelet- derived growth factor BB homodimers are increased in male children with autism”. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 1 (2010): 154-158.
  13. Nguyen PT., et al. “Cognitive and socio-emotional deficits in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β gene knockout mice”. PLoS One3 (2011): e18004.
  14. Kajizuka M., et al. “Serum levels of platelet-derived growth factor BB homodimers are increased in male children with autism”. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 1 (2010): 154-158.
  15. Masi A., et al. “Cytokine levels and associations with symptom severity in male and female children with autism spectrum disorder”. Molecular Autism 8 (2017): 63.
Citation: AJ Russo., et al. “Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF)-AA Levels in Mothers of Autistic Children”. EC Paediatrics 10.12 (2021): 95-97.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.