Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 2 - 2022
“Comparison of Heart Rate between Preterm and Term Infants”
Mohmmad Azam Khan1* and Shahana Parveen2

1Assistant Professor (Paediatric), Abdul Malek Ukil Medical College, Noakhali, Bangladesh

2Consultant (Paediatrics), Mugda Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh

*Corresponding Author: Mohmmad Azam Khan, Assistant Professor (Paediatric), Abdul Malek Ukil Medical College, Noakhali, Bangladesh.
Received: January 03, 2022; Published: January 28, 2022


Introduction: The transition from fetus to newborn is a complex physiological process. There is growing interest in the use of pulse oxymetry to assess the condition of infants immediately after birth. Heart rate, measured by counting the heart beats/minute, is a net effect of the decelerating influence of the vagal (parasympathetic) fibers, and the accelerating influence of the sympathetic fibers on the inherent rhythmicity of the heart's sinoatrial node.

Objective: To assess the Comparison of heart rate between preterm and term infants.

Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out to see oxygen saturation immediately after birth and to describe changes in heart rate immediately after birth. A total 317 patients were selected according to selection criteria. In the delivery room, Department of obstetrics and gynecology, 250 Beded General Hospital, Noakhali, Bangladesh from October 2017 to March 2018.

Results: A total 317 neonate were selected according to selection criteria. Among the study subjects more than half were male (57.1%). Rests were female (42.9%). The mode of delivery was mostly LUCS (96.6%). Only 5.4% cases it was NVD. Average gestational age of the study subjects was 37.47 ± 1.16 (SD) with the range of 34 - 40. On the other hand average birth weight was 2.88±0.46 (SD) with the minimum birth weight 2.0 kg and maximum weight 4.2 kg. More than three forth of the study subjects had motion artifact (77.0%) and in 48.9% cases vernix was present. Among the study subjects high ambient light present in 3.5% cases and low perfusion present in 1.3% cases. Acrocyanosis was present in 2.5% cases. Showed that differences of heart rate in two minutes after delivery were statistically significant. The median values were more in vaginal birth from 1 to 9 minutes. But median heart rate was more in 10 minutes in caesarian birth baby. But these differences were not statisticaly significant. Illustrates the median (IQR) heart rate from one to ten min for preterm versus term births. At one to three minutes and at five minutes after birth preterm infants had significantly lower SpO2 measurements. From six to 10 minutes after birth and four minutes after birth there was no significant difference between SpO2 measurements for mode of delivery. Paired sample t test showed that average heart rate was more in 1 minute [155.06 ± 13.12 (SD)] than in 5 minute [153.43 ± 14.13 (SD)] and statistically this differences were significant (t = 2.149, p = 0.032). Pearson correlation showed high positive correlation i.e., heart rate in 5 minutes was less than heart rate in 1 minute (p = 0.000) and correlation co-efficient r = 0.509. Correlation was significant at the 0.01 level.

Conclusion: Heart rate can be low in the first minutes after birth in infants with good respiratory effort and muscle tone. The main focus of this thesis was to define the reference range for measurements of oxygen saturation and heart rate in the first minutes after birth from a large cohort of infants not receiving interventions in the delivery room. My findings add to the body of knowledge regarding the change in oxygen saturation and heart rate in the first minutes after birth.

Keywords: Heart Rate; Preterm; Term Infants; Pulse Oxymetry.


  1. Omar F Kamlin., et al. “Saturation Oxgen Saturation in healthy infants immediately after birth”. The Journal of Paediatrics 148 (2006): 585-589.
  2. Henslee JA., et al. “Saturation Developmental patterns of heart rate and variability in prematurely-born infants with apnea of prematurity”. Early Human Development1 (1997): 35-50.
  3. Yacov Rabi., et al. “Saturation Oxygen Saturtion trends immediately after birth”. The Journal of Paediatrics (2006): 590-594.
  4. JA Dawson., et al. “Saturation Pulse Oximetry monitoring infants in the delivery room; a review”. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 92 (2007): F4-F7.
  5. Rudolph AM., et al. “Saturation Studies on the circulation in the neonatal period”. Paediatrics 27 (1961): 551-566.
  6. Jagdish C Das. “Monitoring of Oxygen in Neonate.7th National Conference and Scientific Session, Bangladesh Neonatal Forum (2011).
  7. Andrew Lyon. Intensive care monitoring and data handling.In:Janet M Rennie. Roberton’s Text book of Neonatology. Philadelphia, USA: ELSEVIER (2005): 358-359.
  8. PD Macdonald and VYHYu. “Simultaneous measurement of preductal and postductal oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in hyaline membrane disease”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 67 (1992): 1166-1168.
  9. Akhil Maheshwari and Wakdermar A. Cario. Hemolytic Disesde of the newborn (ErythroblastosisFetalis). In:Kliegman,Stanton,ST.GemeSchorBehrman. Nelson Textbook ofPediatrics.Philadelphia,USA:ELSEVIER (2012): 615-619.
  10. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Part 7: Neonatal resuscitation”. Resuscitation2-3 (2005): 293-303.
  11. O'Donnell CP., et al. “Saturation Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery”. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition6 (2007): F465-F467.
  12. Saugstad OD., et al. “Saturation Resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants with room air or oxygen: an international controlled trial: the Resair 2 study”. Pediatrics1 (1998): e1.
  13. Vento M., et al. “Saturation Oxidative stress in asphyxiated term infants resuscitated with 100% oxygen”. Journal of Pediatrics 142 (2003): 240-246.
  14. Bohnhorst B., et al. “Saturation Pulse oximeters' reliability in detecting hypoxemia and bradycardia: comparison between a conventional and two new generation oximeters”. Critical Care Medicine5 (2000): 1565-1568.
  15. East CE., et al. “Saturation Update on intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology2 (2002): 119-124.
  16. East CE. “Fetal pulse oximetry during labor: theory, clinical use and the future”. Pediatric Health6 (2008): 787-795.
  17. Biarent D., et al. “Saturation European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation”. Resuscitation 67S1 (2005): S97-S133.
  18. Australian Resuscitation Council. Section 13. ARC Manual of Guidelines”. Neonatal Guidelines (2006).
  19. Dimich I., et al. “Saturation Evaluation of oxygen saturation monitoring by pulse oximetry in neonates in the delivery system”. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia8 (1991): 985-988.
  20. American Heart Association. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: Neonatal resuscitation guidelines”. Pediatrics 117 (2006): 1029-1038.
  21. Leone TA and Finer NN. “Neonatal resuscitation: beyond the basics”. Neo Reviews4 (2005): e177-e183.
  22. Clark RL., et al. “Saturation Use of oxygen in the resuscitation of preterm infants: Current opinion and practice in Australia and New Zealand”. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 45 (2009): 31-35.
  23. The role of oximetry in the first 10 minutes of age after birth. 05; Washington DC: PAS (2005).
  24. Harris AP., et al. “Saturation Changes in arterial oxygen saturation immediately after birth in the human neonate”. Journal of Pediatrics1 (1986): 117-119.
  25. O'Donnell CPF., et al. “Saturation Obtaining pulse oximetry data in neonates: a randomised crossover study of sensor application.
  26. O'Donnell CPF., et al. “Saturation Feasibility of and delay in obtaining pulse oximetry during neonatal resuscitation”. Journal of Pediatrics 147 (2005): 698-699.
  27. Saugstad OD., et al. “Saturation Response to resuscitation of the newborn: early prognostic variables”. Acta Paediatr7 (2005): 890-895.
  28. Wang CL., et al. “Saturation Resuscitation of preterm neonates by using room air or 100% oxygen”. Pediatrics6 (2008): 1083-1089.
  29. Thilo EH., et al. “Saturation by pulse oximetry: comparison of the results obtained by instruments of different brands”. The Journal of Pediatrics4 (1993): 620-626.
Citation: Abul Mohmmad Azam Khan and Shahana Parveen. ““Comparison of Heart Rate between Preterm and Term Infants””. EC Paediatrics 11.2 (2022): 15-24.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.