Literature Review
Volume 11 Issue 4 - 2022
Assistance to Child Sexual Abuse Victims: From Disclosure to the Critical Path. An Integrative Literature Review
Vanessa Borges Platt1* and Jucélia Maria Guedert2
1Pediatrician, Children’s Hospital and University Hospital, Specialization in Clinical Bioethics by Redebioética/UNESCO, Ph.D. in Public Health, Public Health Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
2Pediatrician, Member of the Board of Directors of the Brazilian Society of Bioethics, Santa Catarina Regional Administration, Specialization in Clinical Bioethics by Redebioética/UNESCO, Ph.D. in Medical Science, Medical Science Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Vanessa Borges Platt, Pediatrician, Children’s Hospital and University Hospital, Specialization in Clinical Bioethics by Redebioética/UNESCO, Ph.D. in Public Health, Public Health Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Received: February 21, 2022; Published: March 11, 2021




Abstract

Objective: This paper presents an integrative review of Brazilian norms and guidelines for assisting children who have suffered sexual abuse and reflectively discusses the difficulties of victims and families to reveal this violence, the notification of cases, and the care pathway imposed on them up from the revelation.

Method: Integrative review regarding "sexual violence in childhood and adolescence" using official Brazilian websites and online libraries SciELO, PubMed and Google Scholar.

Results: The Technical Norm “Prevention and Treatment of Diseases Resulting from Sexual Violence against Women and Adolescents” provides support for structuring care networks for victims of sexual violence. The journey taken by victims for assistance is a long one, involving multiprofessional assessments, police and justice procedures, and sometimes implies an unknown path.

Conclusion: The service network for people in situations of violence represents advances in facing the problem. Professionals involved in care must support victims by making the required routes less critical and more effective in ensuring social non-stigmatization and fundamental human rights.

Keywords: Child Sexual; Abuse; Disclosure; Delivery of Health Care; Mandatory Reporting

References

  1. Kellogg N, American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. “The evaluation of sexual abuse in children”. Pediatrics2 (2005): 506-512.
  2. Ministério dos Direitos Humanos. Violência contra Crianças e Adolescentes: Análise de Cenários e Propostas de Políticas Públicas. Brasília, DF: Ministério dos Direitos Humanos (2018).
  3. Deslandes SF., et al. “Violência envolvendo crianças no Brasil: um plural estruturado e estruturante”. In: Brasil. Ministério da Saúde, organizador. Impacto da violência na saúde dos brasileiros Brasília, DF: Ministério da Saúde (2005): 43-77.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO). Violence and Injury Prevention. Prevention of child maltreatment: WHO scales up child maltreatment prevention activities. WHO (2013).
  5. Ministério da Saúde. Análise epidemiológica da violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes no Brasil, 2011 a 2017. Boletim Epidemiológico 49.27 (2018): 1-17.
  6. Ministério da Saúde registra recorde de abusos sexuais infantis no Brasil. Universo Online (UOL) (2020).
  7. Yang J., et al. “Incidence and cost of sexual violence in Iowa”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2 (2014): 198-202.
  8. Santos SS and Dell'Aglio DD. “Quando o silêncio é rompido: o processo de revelação e notificação de abuso sexual infantile”. Psicologia and Sociedade 2 (2010): 328-335.
  9. Souza MT., et al. “Revisão integrativa: o que é e como fazer”. Einstein1 (2010): 102-106.
  10. Estatuto da criança e do adolescente: Lei n. 8.069, de 13 de julho de 1990, e legislação correlate 9th edition. Brasília, DF: Câmara dos Deputados, Edições Câmara (2012).
  11. Ministério da Saúde. “Prevenção e tratamento dos agravos resultantes da violência sexual contra mulheres e adolescentes: Norma técnica 3rd edition”. Brasília, DF: Ministério da Saúde (2012).
  12. Ministério da Saúde. Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (Viva): 2009, 2010 e 2011 Brasília, DF: Ministério da Saúde (2016).
  13. Portaria nº 1.271/GM/MS, de 06 de junho de 2014. Define a Lista Nacional de Notificação Compulsória de doenças, agravos e eventos de saúde pública nos serviços de saúde públicos e privados em todo o território nacional, nos termos do anexo, e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União 108.1 (2014): 7-9.
  14. Portaria nº 4.279/GM/MS, de 30 de dezembro de 2010. Estabelece diretrizes para a organização da Rede de Atenção à Saúde no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Diário Oficial da União 251.1 (2010): 88-93.
  15. Ministério dos Direitos Humanos. Violência contra Crianças e Adolescentes: análise de cenários e propostas de políticas públicas Brasília, DF: Ministério dos Direitos Humanos (2018).
  16. Habigzang LF., et al. “A revelação de abuso sexual: as medidas adotadas pela rede de apoio”. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa 4 (2011): 467-473.
  17. Aquino LMC. “A rede de proteção a crianças e adolescentes, a medida protetora de abrigo e o direito à convivência familiar e comunitária: a experiência em nove municípios brasileiros”. In: Silva ERA, editor. O direito à convivência familiar e comunitária: os abrigos para crianças e adolescentes no Brasil Brasília, DF: IPEA (2004): 325-365.
  18. Cabral ALLV., et al. “Itinerários terapêuticos: o estado da arte da produção científica no Brasil”. Ciência and Saúde Coletiva 11 (2011): 4433-4442.
  19. McElvaney R. “Disclosure of child sexual abuse: delays, non-disclosure and partial disclosure. What the research tells us and implications for practice”. Child Abuse Review 3 (2013): 159-169.
  20. Lemaigre C., et al. “Barriers and facilitators to disclosing sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence: a systematic review”. Child Abuse and Neglect 70 (2017): 39-52.
  21. Morrison SE., et al. “Children’s disclosure of sexual abuse: a systematic review of qualitative research exploring barriers and facilitators”. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 2 (2018): 176-194.
  22. Tener D. “The secret of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: who keeps it and how?” Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 1 (2018): 1-21.
  23. McElvaney R., et al. “To tell or not to tell? Factors influencing young people’s informal disclosures of child sexual abuse”. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 5 (2014): 928-947.
  24. Hall RC and Hall RC. “A profile of pedophilia: definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 4 (2007): 457-471.
  25. Mason C and Kennedy N. “Sexual abuse in Malawi: patterns of disclosure?” Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 3 (2014): 278-289.
  26. Alaggia R., et al. “Facilitators and barriers to child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosures: a research update (2000-2016)”. Trauma Violence Abuse2 (2019): 260-283.
  27. Faleiros E. “O abuso sexual contra crianças e adolescentes: os (des) caminhos da denúncia”. Brasília, DF: Secretaria Especial dos Direitos Humanos, Brasil (2003).
  28. Ferreira CLS., et al. “Promoção dos direitos da criança e prevenção de maus tratos infantis”. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva 11 (2019): 3997-4008.
  29. Veenema TG., et al. “The public health crisis of child sexual abuse in low and middle income countries: an integrative review of the literature”. International Journal of Nursing Studies 4 (2015): 864-881.
  30. Shrader E and Sagot M. “Domestic violence: women's way out”. Washington, DC: PAHO/WHO (2000).
  31. Baragatti DY., et al. “Rota crítica de mulheres em situação de violência por parceiro íntimo”. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem 26 (2018): e3025.
  32. Ansara DL and Hindin MJ. “Formal and informal help-seeking associated with women's and men's experiences of intimate partner violence in Canada”. Social Science and Medicine 7 (2010): 1011-1018.
Citation: Vanessa Borges Platt and Jucélia Maria Guedert. “Assistance to Child Sexual Abuse Victims: From Disclosure to the Critical Path. An Integrative Literature Review”. EC Paediatrics 11.4 (2022): 26-34.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 20, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.