Research Article
Volume 11 Issue 4 - 2022
Pneumonia in Under-5 Children: Evaluation of Epidemiological Risk Factors and Predictors of Hypoxemia
Anurag A Fursule1*, Subodh S Saha2, G Malini3, Dinesh D Pawale4 and Dattatray V Kulkarni5
1Registrar Trainee, Perth Children Hospital, CAHS, Perth, WA, Australia
2Joint Director and Senior Consultant, Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India
3Ex Joint Director and Head of Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Hospital and Research Centre, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India 4Registrar in Neonatology, Senior Registrar, Perth Children Hospital, CAHS, Perth, WA, Australia
5Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, MIMSR Medical College (MIT), Latur, Maharashtra, India
*Corresponding Author: Anurag A Fursule, Associate Consultant in Neonatal Intensive Care Services, Surya Mother and Child Care Super Speciality Hospital, Pune, India.
Received: February 23, 2022; Published: March 30, 2022




Abstract

Background: Pneumonia is the most common cause of under 5 mortality in developing countries. There is limited data on risk factors for pneumonia from state of Central India. Identifying such risk factor may help in formulating health policies which can reduce burden on of pneumonia in India and other developing countries.

Objectives: Present study was planned to identify risk factors and report clinical profile of admitted infants with pneumonia under 5 years of age.

Methods: This was a case control study carried out in the Paediatrics Wards of a tertiary care hospital in Central India. The period of study was August 2013 to July 2014. Children aged 2 months to 59 months diagnosed with Pneumonia or Severe Pneumonia as per the WHO guidelines were included. Parents of enrolled children were enquired for risk factors after consent. Epidemiological risk factors for pneumonia and clinical features predicting hypoxemia were evaluated.

Results: Risk factors significantly associated with pneumonia included less duration of maternal and paternal education, incomplete immunization, history of upper respiratory tract infection in mother and siblings, under nutrition, lack exclusive breastfeeding, use of biomass fuel, overcrowding, parental smoking and living in thatched house. On multiple logistic regression, URTI in mother/siblings and maternal education < 10 yrs were found to be independent risk factors for pneumonia. Among clinical features presence of inability to feed, grunting and altered consciousness are reliable predictors of hypoxemia in children under five.

Conclusion: The epidemiological risk factors could help national programmes in reducing the mortality associated with childhood pneumonia. Specific predictors can help diagnose pneumonia needing urgent hospital care.

 

Keywords: Childhood Mortality; Childhood Pneumonia; Hypoxemia

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Citation: Anurag A Fursule., et al. “Pneumonia in Under-5 Children: Evaluation of Epidemiological Risk Factors and Predictors of Hypoxemia”. EC Paediatrics 11.4 (2022): 50-57.

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