Review Article
Volume 11 Issue 5 - 2022
Corticotropin Releasing Factor, Social Stress, and Functional Incontinence in Children
Jan D Van Gool1*, An Bael2, Iris Rübben3 and Hildegard Lax1
1Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Essen-Duisburg University, Essen, Germany
2Deptement of Pediatric Nephrology, Queen Paola Children’s Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium
3Deptement of Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Essen, Germany The Authors Declare that there is no Conflict of Interest Regarding the Publication of this Paper
*Corresponding Author: Jan D Van Gool, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Essen-Duisburg University, Essen, Germany.
Received: April 06,2022; Published: April 22, 2022


In neurologically normal children with functional urinary incontinence there still are a number of unexplained characteristics: a girls/boys ratio of almost four, the co-existence of bladder and colonic dysfunction, the cure rates obtained with cognitive-behavioral therapy, and the variation of urodynamic patterns over time.

In rodents, experiments with social stress provoke gender specific simultaneous responses of bladder and colon activity, mediated by the corticotropin releasing factor signaling pathway. These responses to social stressors (social instability in females and social defeat in males) provide homologous models for overactive bladder in girls, and Hinman’s syndrome in boys.

In school-age children, social stress as a cause of behavioural and emotional problems has been investigated mainly with self-reported questionnaires. Teacher rating scales are a more objective tool to identify behavioural and emotional problems, as well as the social stressors.

To find a link between episodes of incontinence and social stress, we rely too much on parental documentation of incontinence. We need to document incontinence objectively, on a time line of consecutive days and nights, as long as it takes to register at least one episode. ‘Wearable electronics’ can do this: underwear with woven-in sensors for humidity/temperature, connected to a data-logger.


Keywords: Corticotropin Releasing Factor; Social Stress; Functional Incontinence; Children


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Citation: Jan D Van Gool., et al. “Corticotropin Releasing Factor, Social Stress, and Functional Incontinence in Children”. EC Paediatrics 11.5 (2022): 01-10.

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