Mini Review
Volume 6 Issue 10 - 2021
How Coronavirus is Susceptible in Animals?
Rida Asrar*, Anas Sarwar Qureshi, Sadia Yousuf, Amna Shakoor, Basam Shahzad, Moazzam Ali and Hafiz Muhammad Taimoor Ihsan
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Rida Asrar, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Received: July 12,2021; Published: September 18, 2021


Among the infections raising concern, a Respiratory Syndrome, caused by the coronavirus belongs to family coronaviridae is RNA virus having linear positive sense RNA genome. Infections associated with this virus are creating life threatening conditions from Middle East to the Asia very quickly now days. China reported many cases since 2019, as China shares border with Pakistan, we have to adopt preventive measures to control the situation. Coronaviruses are common in many different species of animals, including camels, pigs and bats. These coronaviruses can also infect humans and then spread between humans as plague. Recent examples of this include SARS-CoV (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus). Corona virus is severe and lethal virus with its new emerging variants. In the present time it is of great importance because of pandemic. It is resulting in huge destruction all around the world. The economy of the world has decreased enormously due to this tiny but lethal virus. It not only affects the humans but also affecting the animal’s species.

Keywords: Coronavirus; Contagious; Zoonotic


    1. Andersen KG., et al. “The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2”. Nature Medicine 26 (2020): 450-452.
    2. Beaudette F. “Cultivation of the virus of infectious bronchitis”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 90 (1937): 51-60.
    3. Bradburne AF., et al. “New respiratory virus”. British Medical Journal 3 (1967): 752.
    4. Brian D and Baric R. “Coronavirus genome structure and replication. In Brian DA. BRS, editor. Coronavirus Replication and Reverse Genetics”. Berlin; Heidelberg: Springer (2005): 1-30.
    5. Cavanagh D., et al. “Revision of the taxonomy of the Coronavirus, Torovirus and Arterivirus genera”. Archives of Virology 135 (1994): 227.
    6. Cavanagh D., et al. “Coronaviruses from pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are genetically closely related to coronaviruses of domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus) and turkeys”. Avian Pathology 31 (2002): 81-93.
    7. Cheng VC., et al. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 20 (2007): 660-694.
    8. De Groot RJ., et al. “Family coronaviridae”. In: King AM, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ, Davison AJ, Knowles NJ, et al., editors. Virus Taxonomy Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, CA: Academic Press (2012): 806-828.
    9. Enjuanes L., et al. “Coronvirdae in virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses”. In: Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, et al., editors. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, CA: Academic Press (2000): 835-849.
    10. Gonzalez J., et al. “A comparative sequence analysis to revise the current taxonomy of the family Coronaviridae”. Archives of Virology 148 (2003): 2207-2235.
    11. Gao H., et al. “From SARS to MERS: evidence and speculation”. Frontiers in Medicine 10 (2016): 377-382.
    12. Gorbalenya A., et al. “The species severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2”. Nature Microbiology 5 (2020): 536-544.
    13. Horzinek MC., et al. “A new family of vertebrate viruses: Toroviridae”. Intervirology 27 (1987): 17-24.
    14. Hoffmann M., et al. “The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells”. Bio Rxiv (2020).
    15. Johns Hopkins University and Medicine. Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) (2020).
    16. Kendall E., et al. “Virus isolations from common colds occurring in a residential school”. British Medical Journal 2 (1962): 82.
    17. Lu R., et al. “Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding”. Lancet 395 (2020): 565-574.
    18. Li X., et al. “Bat origin of a new human coronavirus: there and back again”. Science China Life Sciences 63 (2020): 461-462.
    19. Mousavizadeh L and Ghasemi S. “Genotype and phenotype of COVID-19: their roles in pathogenesis”. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020).
    20. Murphy FA., et al. “Introduction to the universal system of virus taxonomy, In Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses”. Vienna: Springer (1995): 1-13.
    21. Notredame C., et al. “T-Coffee: a novel method for fast and accurate multiple sequence alignment”. Journal of Molecular Biology 302 (2000): 205-217.
    22. Pedersen NC. “A review of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection: 1963-2008”. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 11 (2009): 225-258.
    23. Pringle C. “Committee pursues medley of virus taxonomic issues”. ASM News 58 (1992): 475-476.
    24. Peiris J., et al. “Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome”. Lancet 361 (2003): 1319-1325.
    25. Su S., et al. “Epidemiology, genetic recombination, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses”. Trends Microbiology 24 (2016): 490-502.
    26. World Health Organization. Global Alert and Response: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2014).
    27. Weiss SR and Navas-Martin S. “Coronavirus pathogenesis and the emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 69 (2005): 635-664.
    28. Wan Y., et al. “Receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan: an analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus”. Journal of Virology 94 (2020): e00127-20.
    29. Ye Z-W., et al. “Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses”. International Journal of Biological Sciences 16 (2020): 1686.
    30. Zaki AM., et al. “Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia”. The New England Journal of Medicine 367 (2012): 1814-1820.
    31. Zhang X., et al. “Viral and host factors related to the clinical outcome of COVID-19”. Nature 583 (2020): 437-440.
    32. Zhou P., et al. “Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin”. Bio Rxiv 579 (2020): 270-273.
Citation: Rida Asrar., et al. “How Coronavirus is Susceptible in Animals?”. EC Veterinary Science 6.10 (2021): 44-49.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

January Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 13, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.