Jinqiao Qian Research Interests are Despite better awareness of epidemiology and pathophysiology, the worldwide prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing. Contemporaneously, medical advances are resulting in more patients with cardiovascular comorbidity presenting for surgery. Although anesthesia itself is now very safe, perioperative cardiac complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality as a consequence of the high underlying prevalence of cardiovascular disease; for example, the American Heart Association (AHA) estimates that more than 2200 Americans die of cardiovascular disease each day, an average of 1 death every 39 seconds. Fortunately, there is evidence that pharmacological intervention can reduce risk. Our researches focus on drugs available and their possible mechanisms in modifying the pathophysiology of a perioperative acute myocardial infarction.